Media Conversion: Cost Effectively Integrating T1 into Your Fiber
Revealing some simple steps you can take to protect your existing
investment in network infrastructure while expanding its performance
T1/E1 is one of the most
popular forms of data transmission today. It has been around for many
years. Originally, T1 was solely a Telco transmission mechanism tool to
reduce the number of wires being installed between central offices. One T1
circuit can provide 24 channels of digitized voice, which means the phone
company can install one line to a business to handle up to 24 separate
phone calls; rather than installing 24 individual phone cables. Today we
are finding more and more uses for T1; moving it out of the Telco
propitiatory environment into private networks. It's in these private
networks where T1 has become popular and where media conversion plays a
significant roll in reducing cost of installation and equipment. These
private networks are typically Campus or Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)
where a significant part of the T1 circuit falls inside the private
In 1957, the Bell
systems installed the first T1 trunk to carry high-speed digital voice
signals over two twisted pair (four wires). In 1997, the Extended
Superframe Format (ESF) was created which provides in-service diagnostics.
In addition, in 1983, T1 was tariffed so corporations could combine their
voice and data traffic over one line. Now in the 90's we have adapted T1 to
Fast Packet Technology, which instantaneously multiplexes and allocates
bandwidth on demand. As you can see, as our needs have change we have also
changed the basic workings on T1. Although T1 is basically the same, it is
how we use the bits it transfers that has varied.
T1 is based on 24
voice channels of 64 Kbps. If you multiply that out (24 x 64K) you get
1.536 Mbps and not 1.544 Mbps. The reason is that after each byte (8
bits) of data is sent from each channel there is an extra bit sent for
synchronization a Frame sync bit. This adds another 8Kbps to the
transmission for a total of 1.544 Mbps. The E1 standard is slightly
different, but it is basically the same technology and provides the same
services in Europe and in other parts of the world.
The basic building
blocks of a T1 network are the CSU/DSU, multiplexer and a bridge or
router. Depending on the type of T1 network being created, not all of
these components need to be used. The CSU/DSU (channel service unit/data
service unit) is the actual connection point for the T1 wires. It
provides line diagnostics and keep-alive functions for the line. The T1
line connects to the unit via an RJ-45 connector and connects to premise
equipment via a V.35 interface. The CSU/DSU also provides signal
conversion and clocking over the T1 line. The multiplexer provides the
circuitry to direct multiple channels of voice or data onto a T1 line.
Many multiplexers have built-in CSU/DSU units for direct connection to T1
lines. The bridge or router provides the interface that allows internal
servers and networks to use the T1 line as a network extension or
interconnection. As the following illustrations show, different devices
are used to complete the network depending on the application.
Figure 1: T1 Data Network Application
Figure 2: T1 Voice and Data Network Application
Figure 3: T1 Data Network Application with Multiple T1 Lines
The installation of T1
lines is demanding. Typically, the two twisted pairs of wires needed for
the T1 line is in a 25-pair bundle. The installer, at random, picks two
pairs and tests them to see if they will support a T1 circuit. Due to
crosstalk between pairs of wires, the pairs that the installer picked may
not support the circuit. This process is repeated until two pair of
suitable wires are found. This hunt for the correct wire pairs can be
compounded by bridge taps. Bridge taps are wire pairs that have multiple
appearances of the same wire pair at several distribution points.
Originally, the phone company wired areas like this to support party lines.
Party lines have long gone away but some of the original wiring still
exists. In the worst case, the installer will have to run new wire to
support the T1 circuit.
Another factor in the
installation of a T1 line is that it needs line conditioning. Line
conditioning means that the signal is regenerated at regular intervals.
In the case of T1, a repeater is added every 6,000 feet (2km). However,
to maintain a high signal quality, the first and last repeaters must be
within 3,000 feet (1km) from the endpoints.
Cost of T1 Lines
Typically, T1 circuits
are dedicated lines that are leased on a monthly basis. Some carriers will
offer switched services for special applications such as videoconferencing
or temporary data services such as backups. T1 lines are commonly used to
provide private data links between an organization's local and remote
facilities. They also may provide links between a company's internal
network and an ISP (Internet Service Provider) or to a public
packet-switched network such as a frame-relay network that provides packet
delivery services to one or more sites. For example, the customer may
choose to use the entire T1 line for data and not for voice and
While private networks
built with T1 lines have many benefits, cost is not one of them if the
lines are long distance. T1 leased rates increase with distance. A short
distance line within a metropolitan area may cost $1,500 per month while
a long-distance line across the Unites States may cost $20,000 per month.
To create long-distance network connections, it is often better to lease
a short-haul T1 line to create a connection into a carrier's
packet-switched network, as shown on the right in Figure 4. The short T1
line will be inexpensive, and the packet-switched network can deliver
traffic on a pay-for-use basis to other sites.
Fractional T1 is
another way to lower the cost of the T1 line. Fractional T1 lets you
lease a T1 line in increments of 64Kbps each. The normal T1 line
installation cost is incurred (typically $300), but you only pay for the
channels you use. Since T1 provides 24 channels of 64Kbps the customer
can scale the cost of the line based on the bandwidth demand.
A T1 to Fiber Media
Converter can assist in several areas of the T1 circuit. They can help with
installation costs, equipment costs and troubleshooting network problems.
Typically, media conversion is used in two types of private network
applications. Either a completely private network where the customer owns
and operates all of the T1 equipment; or a premise side network where the
customer only owns the T1 equipment in their building, campus or
metropolitan area. The following figures show examples of these
Figure 4: Typical Media Converter Application for a Completely Private
A completely private
network application may exist between two buildings where the customer
wants to transfer voice, data or both. The phone company is not involved
at all with this kind of network. The customer owns the complete
installation: all the equipment and the problems that go with it.
Figure 5: Typical Media Converter Application for a Premise Side
In a premise side
application, when a T1 line is installed by the phone company they stop
at the demark point. That is the point at which the phone company
terminates their lines. The demark may actually be hundreds of feet from
the CSU/DSU and in a building, campus or MAN network. In some cases, this
could be as much as thousands of feet away.
Media conversion can
be used in both of these types of applications. It can simplify the link
between two buildings or from the demark to the location where the
customers T1 equipment resides. The fiber link can be up to 8,000 meters
(26,000 feet or 5 miles) long. It does not need any line conditioning,
which eliminates costly repeaters. Installation can be done without any
concern for cross talk between lines or their placement in regards to
external electrical interference.
Integrate T1 into Existing Fiber
In the private or premise side applications we have discussed earlier,
they require a fiber link. Unless this is a new installation, these fiber
links would be installed in locations where network backbones currently
exist. Since fiber is the most popular network backbone media, it is very
likely that there is already an existing unused fiber link available for
these applications. Currently, when a company installs fiber they typically
install more than one. Statistics indicate that right now about 80% to 90%
of the installed fiber is dark. Dark fiber is fiber that has been installed
and is unused. This is another reason that media conversion makes sense for
building, campus or metropolitan area networks. Most of these networks
already have fiber backbone media installed. It would not make sense to
revert back to a costly copper link.
Some media converters,
like the ones provided by Transition Networks, incorporate a variety of
other features including troubleshooting aids, fault detection and Jitter
Loopback is an important troubleshooting feature for ease of installation.
It allows the installer to check the promise side of the network before
activating the Telco side. This makes for a much smoother installation when
the premise side is known to be good and working. Bit Error Rate (BER)
testing can be performed in loopback mode on the premise side of the
installation and then compared later to a full line testing. Knowing the
premise side BER figures can help locate or identify where the circuit is
Jitter attenuators are another feature to look for in a media converter.
Jitter is introduced into a T1 circuit as a result of line conditioning.
These attenuators are designed to filter out unwanted jitter and improve
BER testing results.
Dry Relay Contacts
Dry relay contacts are a feature that doesn't actually help with
installation but provides a means for future fault detection. By connecting
the dry relay contacts back to an alarm in the customer premise, it
provides a means to detect if the remote media converter fails. A network
administrator can quickly check the status of the remote media converter if
a network failure occurs. These types of troubleshooting aids and features
are important to the proper installation and operation of a T1
If your adding
multiple T1 circuits to you environment, Transition's T1 media converters
can be incorporated into their Conversion Center which with an optional
network management card you can monitor up to eight T1 media converters
at a time. The following figure shows an example of how the Conversion
Center could be used to help maintain a T1 network.
Figure 6: Typical Media Converter Application for a Premise Side
As we have described
here, T1 is a widely used networking tool. Since T1 has been around since
the 1950s, it is common to come across it or want to add it in networks.
Media conversion can provide a simple way to integrate T1 into your premise
or private network. Here are some things to remember:
conversion can reduce the cost of installation since line
conditioning of the fiber link is not necessary, eliminating costly
probably already exists where you want to install or expand your T1
Make sure that you
select the right media converter that provides enough features to
make installation and maintenance of your T1 network easy.
If you do have to
install a new link, make it fiber. Fiber is immune to cross talk and
external electrical interference making installation of T1 lines
These are some of the
advantaged of using copper to fiber media conversion. Fiber has been the
choice of network backbones and is increasingly in popularity for other
networking applications. Media conversion provides a means to integrate
fiber into you network as needed.